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Contribution to the writing of the manuscript: YL JT. Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world.

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Images were screened by a neurologist for pathological findings. Furthermore, researchers had detected the impaired cognitive control ability in the adolescents with IAD using a color-word Stroop task [29]. To correct for multiple comparisons, p maps were thresholded to yield an expected false discovery rate FDR of 0. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction.

The connection between the cortical thickness findings and the behavioral assessments could improve our understanding of the structural effects of online gaming addiction on the brain in the adolescents. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think.

Introduction

During rest, a cross was displayed at the center of the screen, and subjects were required to fix their eyes on this cross without responding. Our demonstrated that the rate of online gaming addiction was about According to their self-report of Internet use, the online gaming addiction individuals spent Both groups showed a ificant Stroop effect, where the reaction time was longer during the incongruent than the congruent condition online gaming addiction: The online gaming addiction group committed more errors than the control group during the incongruent condition 8.

In brief, cerebral white matter was segmented from the T1-weighted images and the gray-white matter interface was estimated. As an important period between childhood and adulthood, adolescence is encompassed by alterations in physical, psychological, and social development [1]. Imaging demonstrated that some brain regions associated with executive function showed decreased cortical thickness in online gaming addiction group, such as the left lateral OFC, insula cortex and entorhinal cortex; the others exhibited increased cortical thickness, such as the left precentral gyrus, precuneus and middle temporal cortex Figure 1.

Participants were tested individually in a quiet room when they were in a calm state of mind. Unfortunately, the cortical thickness abnormalities in the adolescents with online gaming addiction and the association between the cognitive control impairment and the cortical topography differences are not well known.

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Local cortical thickness was measured on the basis of the difference between the position of equivalent vertices in the pial and gray-white matter surfaces. IAD is a newly identified condition with loss of control over Internet use and has attracted worldwide attention [7][9][12][13][14][15][17]. Because of its growing prevalence, IAD and online gaming addiction has drawn scientific attention from academia around the world [5][6][7][8][9][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. All events were programmed into two runs with different sequences of congruent and incongruent blocks.

As one of the common mental health problems amongst Chinese adolescents, Internet addiction disorder IAD is currently becoming more and more serious [5][6]. Online gaming addiction, as the most important subtype of IAD, had gained more and more attention from the whole world and especially from east Asia, e.

More detailed demographic information is given in Table 1. All research procedures were approved by the West China Hospital Subcommittee on Human Studies and were conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The demographical information showed that online gaming addiction individuals spent studies had revealed that the impaired cognitive control ability in the adolescents with online gaming addiction [29][32].

Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex OFCinsula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased.

Before the cortical thickness analysis, we had visually checked the quality of raw data for subsequent pipeline. Only the individuals with no personal or family history of psychiatric disorders participated in our further study. We also confirmed the reliability of the self-reports from the online gaming addiction individuals by talking with their parents via telephone and the roommates and classmates.

Button presses by the index, free online shadi in Gainesville FL, and ring finger corresponded to red, blue, and green respectively.

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All recruited participants screened were native right-handed Chinese and were assessed by a personal self-report and Edinburgh Handedness Questionnaire. This task employed a block de with three conditions, i. According to studies [5][22]we chose healthy controls who spent less than 2 hours per day on the Internet. The surface of the gray-white matter border was inflated, and differences between subjects in the depth of the gyri and sulci were normalized.

In addition, reduced cortical thickness in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex OFCinsula cortex and lingual gyrus, along with the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex, and inferior parietal cortex were detected in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

To investigate the neural basis of online gaming addiction, emerging neuroimaging studies had been performed and had highlighted functional abnormalities in individuals with online gaming addiction [19]. We asked the subjects to recall their life-style when they were initially addicted to their mainly online game, i.

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The healthy controls were also tested with the YDQ criteria modified by Beard and Wolf to ensure they were not suffering from online gaming addiction. studies had revealed the ificant correlation between the structural abnormalities and the duration of online gaming addiction [5]. In the current study, we focused on the brain regions with ificantly different cortical thicknesses between online gaming addiction and control groups.

Three words, Red, Blue, and Green were displayed in three colors red, blue and green as the congruent and incongruent stimuli. It is hoped that our findings can be used to develop novel imaging biomarkers that will enhance the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of online gaming addiction. Consistent with this view, Ko et al.

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To obtain cortical thickness difference maps, the data were smoothed on the surface with a Gaussian smoothing kernel with a full-width half maximum of 10 mm. Topographical defects in the gray-white estimate were fixed, which were then used as the starting point for the deformable surface algorithm search for the pial surface. To investigate the relationship between cortical thickness findings and online gaming addiction, whole brain correlation analysis between cortical thickness and behavioral assessments i.

Although the voxel-based morphometry VBM method had revealed the gray matter deficits in the ACC, the DLPFC, the OFC, the insula and left lingual gyrus, the supplementary motor area SMA and the cerebellum in online gaming addiction individuals [5][24]this method is especially susceptible to the differences in registration, degree of smoothing, and choice of normalization template [25][26].

Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, few studies have examined, so far, the cortical thickness abnormalities and its association with the cognitive control impairment in the adolescents with online gaming addiction. Numerous functional imaging studies had detected the possible neural mechanisms of the online gaming addiction and suggested that it may share similar psychological and neurobiological abnormalities with addictive disorders with and without substance [20][21][22][23].

This area is an important part of the prefrontal cortex and has biological connections with crucial subcortical nodes associated with learning and reward, such as the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens NAc. By virtue of these connections, the OFC is uniquely positioned to use associative information to project into the future and to use the value of perceived or expected outcomes, and ultimately to guide decisions [33].

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Our demonstrated that the adolescents with online gaming addiction showed impaired cognitive control ability measured by the color-word Stroop test. Furthermore, IAD has led to negative outcomes in the real social life and become the major source of adolescent crime in China [8][12][13][17].

Fortunately, no subject was removed according to the criteria. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Therefore, cortical thickness measurement method, a more appropriate method than VBM, was employed in the present study to investigate the integrity of cytoarchitecture in the cortex in online gaming addiction group [27][28].

Therefore, the behavioral assessments in the present study were duration of the online gaming addiction and the color-word Stroop task performaces.

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In addition, the color-word Stroop task performances were chosen as the behavioral assessment to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness differences. Learn More. All participants in our study gave written informed consent. After the initial practice, the behavior data was collected two or three days before MRI scanning. Moreover, the correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thickness of several regions were ificantly correlated with duration of addiction in adolescents with online gaming addiction Figure 2which were the left precentral gyrus, precuneus and the lingual gyrus.

To investigate whether or not there were any linear changes in the brain structure, the duration of the disease was estimated via a retrospective diagnosis. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to detect the cortical thickness abnormalities of the late adolescence with online gaming addiction. After controlling for the Beck depression inventory-II BDI effect, increased cortical thickness was observed in several regions in late adolescence with online gaming addiction compared to healthy controls, i. The relatively immature cognitive control ability makes this period a time of vulnerability and adjustment and may lead to a higher incidence of affective disorders and addiction among adolescents [2][3][4].

China and Korea. The connection of neuroimaging findings to well-defined behavioral indices that are known to be affected in online gaming addiction would free online shadi in Gainesville FL a further index of the importance of these findings to addiction. Due to the fact that the BDI score was ificantly different between the two groups, the comparison of regional cortical thickness variations between groups was tested by vertex-by-vertex analysis of covariance ANCOVA including BDI as the covariate.

In addition, the reduced cortical thickness of the left OFC was correlated with the impaired cognitive control ability measured by the color-word Stroop task Figure 3. The OFC is highly involved in reward function and decision making [33] as evidenced by conclusions from drug addiction studies [34].

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With 9. Exclusion criteria for both groups were 1 existence of a neurological disorder evaluated by the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition DSM-IV ; 2 alcohol, nicotine or drug abuse by urine drug screening; 3 pregnancy or menstrual period in women; and 4 any physical illness such as a brain tumor, hepatitis, or epilepsy as assessed according to clinical evaluations and medical records.

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To guarantee that they were suffering from Internet addiction, we retested them with the YDQ criteria modified by Beard and Wolf. Cluster comprising of the vertexes showing ificantly different cortical thicknesses between online gaming addiction group and control groups were defined. The images with distortion and artifact were excluded. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. According to the modified Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet addiction YDQ criteria by Beard and Wolf [17][30]freshman and sophomore students were screened in eight months.

The adolescents with online gaming addiction spend excessive amount of time playing online games and are unable to control their excessive gaming habits despite detrimental social and emotional consequences, such as declined work performance and academic failure [7][8][9]and in extreme cases, even criminal activities [10]. Consistent with findings [29]the online gaming addiction individuals committed more errors than the control group during the incongruent condition.

In the current study, we detected decreased cortical thickness in the left OFC Figure 1. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction. To interpret the relevance of any cortical thickness abnormalities, the possible behavioral implications of these findings were examined by the correlation analysis between the cortical thickness findings and behavioral measures. Based on the abnormal glucose metabolism in the free online shadi in Gainesville FL orbitofrontal cortex OFC and the other regions [20] and levels of dopamine D2 receptor availability in the striatum [21] in the online gaming addiction group, the researchers suggested that online gaming addiction may share similar psychological and neurobiological abnormalities with addictive disorders with and without substance.

Unfortunately, there is currently no standardized treatment for IAD due to the lack of a clear understanding of the mechanisms underlying this disease [12]. When playing online game, players need to build avatars in their virtual world and a very large of players interact with one another within a virtual game world. As a result, more attention should be paid to adolescents with the most popular subtype of IAD, i.

To validate the impaired cognitive control ability in the adolescents with online gaming addiction, the color-word Stroop test was introduced in our study. The findings here demonstrated that there was a cumulative effect of online gaming addiction on the cortical thickness of these brain regions.

The reconstructed brain of each subject was deformed and registered to an average spherical surface. The color-word Stroop task de was implemented by using E-prime 2. FreeSurfer 5.